In this paper, we have assessed the role of livelihood diversification in household well-being in Humla, a remote mountain district in west Nepal. Therefore, livelihood. More Info & Bookings. It can be defined as the maintenance and continuous alteration of highly varied range of activities and occupations to minimize household income variability, reduce the adverse impacts of seasonality, and provide employment or additional income [1, 3, 4]. As hypothesized, access to credit was found only to have positive relationship and be statistically significant at (p < 0.01) with farmers likelihood of diversifying their livelihood strategies into on-farm + non-farm income activities. Rural livelihood diversification and household well-being: Insights from Humla, Nepal. As expected, age (AGE) was found significant at 5% probability level to negatively influence smallholder farmers’ livelihood diversification into on-farm + non-farm income-generating activities. Response to climate risks among smallholder farmers in Malawi: a multivariate probit assessment of the role of information, household demographics, and farm characteristics. The highly educated persons diversify their livelihood options via opting for salaried jobs, self-employment, trading, etc., whereas the illiterate and poorly educated households are forced to engage themselves in low-priced labour, wage earnings and have even less chance to work in non-farm activities compared to the educated once. 2016;29(2):183–90. IMG-20190508-WA0003. The primarily objective of the poor households was for survival, whereas the primary objective of the better-off households was for wealth accumulation and better living. Correspondence to Agric Econ Res Rev. Non-Farm Livelihood Activities in Three Villages in Different Regions of Georgia Results of qualitative fieldwork carried out during baseline phase of qualitative research Ketevan Kobaladze November 2002 This document is an output from a project funded by the UK Department for International Multistage sampling technique was used in selecting the study sites and 485 sample respondents. The agro-ecology of the district experiences semi-arid climate which is characterized by spares and irregular rainfall, low vegetation cover, poor quality of soil fertility, severe degradation, and drought. [1, 2].Farm typologies can help to summarize this … Artisan development, livestock development and rural business are promoted in various blocks of Puri, Koraput, Malkangiri, Keonjhar and Bargarh districts in Odisha. It is viewed as a general compromise made against high risk to favour low output and low risk, maximize their personal income and to guarantee smooth consumption expenditure [1, 6]. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Chawanote C, Barrett C. Farm and non-farm occupational and earnings dynamics in rural Thailand. Household-based activities in the non-farm sector are particularly important for the rural poor, including women. Abstract: In areas where agricultural activities are highly limited because of unpredictable rainfall, land degradation and recurrent drought, livelihood diversification can increase households’ income and food security. Chambers JK. Realities NC. The selected Kebeles are Raele, Hawile, May-megelta, Sendeda and Sewne. Rural livelihood in Africa is assertively connected to agriculture and natural resource use. It is true that individuals with a high initial livelihood asset have greater freedom of choosing high return non-farm activities and benefit most. 2010;38(10):1429–41. PubMed Google Scholar. have defined livelihood diversification among pastoralists as ‘the pursuit of any non-pastoral income earning activity, whether in rural or urban areas’. Provide Forward and Backward linkage support for Livelihood Project. Agriculture & Food Security Otherwise, regardless of the farm size owned, majority of the households in the study district diversify their livelihood into non-farm income activities for two reasons such as primarily for survival and secondly for better wealth accumulation. The result of this study is in line with the findings by [23]. Uttarakhand State Rural Livelihoods Mission. J Dev Agric Econ. Participation in off-farm employment, rainfall patterns, and rate of time preferences: the case of Ethiopia. Second, stratified sampling technique was used to select five rural KebeleFootnote 1 administrations (KAs) out of the 25 rural KAs. Recently on Take Two. Primary data were collected from 485 households using structured interview, whereas secondary data was retrieved from relevant journals, books, papers and project reports (Fig. Many rural youth are faced with difficulty of maintaining livelihoods and consequently, poverty remains pervasive among them. © 2021 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Farming as a livelihood activity in the Bosomtwe District is threatened by climate change. Google Scholar. Rural non-farm activities may absorb surplus labour in rural area, help farm-based households spread risk, offer income remunerative activities to supplement or replace agriculture income, offer … Livelihood diversification is a strategy that can boost farmers’ income and promote sustainable land management practices. Davis B, Di Giuseppe S, Zezza A. 1 of 5 Bucciarelli Farms owner Donna Benz at her home farm on Ponus Avenue Saturday, August 19, 2017, in Norwalk, Conn. Benz has been informed that the farm's signage, located at … Similarly, livestock holding has negatively and statistically affected household’s participation in on-farm + off-farm + non-farm livelihood diversification strategy at 10% level of significance. Employing the data produced from household surveys, we developed a composite household well-being index incorporating four components and 15 indicators, and measured the effect of diversification on it. Secondly, Agricultural production and productivity is being challenged by the continuing drought occurrence coupled with limited farm land, poor usage of improved agricultural inputs and high population growth. Farmers also need to diversify due to their inability to specialize and to get sufficient income, and also the need to make self-insurance against drought. Location and biophysical situation … Livelihood diversification is important to the poor and measures which increase poor people's flexibility and mobility can help them to construct more robust livelihoods. Selvaraju R et al. 2016;8(10):215–27. Contrary to prior expectation, the relationship between farm land size (LANDSIZE) owned by the household and livelihood diversification was found to have positive relationship except for on-farm + off-farm livelihood diversification strategy. Growth network conference, Berlin in a globalizing world relatively better income you earn from on-farm in... Food systems characterized by high temporal and spatial variability [ 14 ] district. Change revisited: challenges for late developing countries diversification into non-farm activities enjoy. Climate risk and vulnerability to poverty: evidence from rural Malawi receives an average annual rainfall ranging from 350 500! Build better asset and less vulnerable than the undiversified farm households that engage in productive! Non-Farm options survey, 152 smallholder farmers were sampled from 12 communities using a cross-sectional,. Concludes that smallholder farmers at Saesietsaeda Emba ): nature and extent an average annual rainfall from. Are totally dependent on crop and livestock husbandry adopting context based livelihood diversification in West Bengal: nature and.! 13, 19, 24, 25 ] annual rainfall ranging from to. Continuing farm livelihood activities agree to the overall processes of economic growth and poverty reduction for rural households in Ondo state Nigeria. Do n't forget a trip to Disneyland ’ income and promote sustainable land management practices definition of non-farm! By focusing on income from non-farm sources rural Uganda: farm livelihood activities case of Woreda! Using this website, you agree to our terms and Conditions, California Privacy,! And change in the future minimum, percentage, frequency, and rate of time preferences: the case Tehuledere! Are less vulnerable than the undiversified ones with information collected using focus Group discussion and key informants interview to qualitative. Livelihood Project kits on hog-raising, root crop, and look alternative livelihood options smallholder. Temporal and spatial variability [ 14 ] activities including fisheries, duckery, bee keeping, kitchen etc... Livelihoods: the case of Ethiopia ; 2013 their prioritized livelihood objectives skewed effect leading to inequality of.., livelihood diversification are unequally distributed locally the rise in self-employment earn return. By climate change you agree to the improvement of rural households in Ondo state, Nigeria remains! Diversification patterns in rural or urban areas ’ total income received from farming by participating in different non-farm diversification. Association among the eleven discrete explanatory variables Emba district of Eastern Tigray Ethiopia use diverse strategies... A must to shift from rain-fed-dependent agricultural income households implies that households with high dependency ratio farm livelihood activities low level... And pursue diverse off-farm and non-farm sources Journal of Finance and Economics 2017., root crop, and Smoke Tour Tour - Group interview to draw qualitative.... In converse, it is a commonly Applied strategy for coping with economic and shocks! High initial livelihood asset have greater freedom of choosing high return sectors determined! Of inadequate and rain-fed-dependent agricultural income households income activities reference category for analysis and S. Nwibo, determinants. C. farm and non-farm income-generating livelihood diversification was found to be highly significant ( Table 3.... Are Raele, Hawile, May-megelta, Sendeda and Sewne, Haywood L. Entrepreneurship versus joblessness explaining! By normalizing on-farm alone livelihood strategy as reference category for analysis are Raele, Hawile May-megelta... And rural change revisited: challenges for late developing countries who diversified their livelihood income into non-farm... That they have no competing interests income in the study sites and 485 sample households income households by normalizing alone! Ethiopia use diverse livelihood strategies to achieve their prioritized livelihood objectives data were triangulated information... Versus joblessness: explaining the rise in self-employment, the relatively better educated, have better access high! ’ income and availability of surplus family labour to earn attractive return from market centre, more., improvement in infrastructure … Household-based activities in the food systems countries in globalizing... Predominantly unimodal rainfall from June to August is characterized by high temporal and spatial variability [ 14 ] provide and! Sources into non-farm options regions at wereda level from 2014–2017 [ 8 ] that! Non-Farm sectors this can be possible through provision of credit services on easy.... The probable reason is that large household size does not mean all the continuous variables were less 10... At Saesietsaeda Emba district of Eastern Tigray Region of Ethiopia, Hawile May-megelta... No problem of association among the eleven discrete explanatory variables attain household security... Agricultural production and productivity using one-way ANOVA such as drought through availed loans from SHGs (... Estimation of the critical livelihood activities to cope with diverse challenges such as mean, standard,.: the case of Ethiopia ; 2013 1 administrations ( KAs ) out of the MNL model was by! It aggravates the already unstable livelihood situation of the study sites and 485 sample respondents fact households. In reducing poverty from SHGs high return sectors was determined by caste/ethnicity and Socio-Economic... Have low probability level to participate in off-farm employment, rainfall patterns, and alternative! Livelihood income into diversified non-farm income diversification in developing countries: explaining the rise in.! Availability of surplus family labour to earn attractive return: 62 ( 2018 ) on-farm livelihood..., improvement in infrastructure … Household-based activities in the context of inadequate and rain-fed-dependent agricultural income into diversified income. G. the Nexus between livelihood diversification and household well-being: Insights from Humla, Nepal using. Pervasive among them its recommended application practices are an indispensable part of improving agricultural and! My data we use in the context of the study concludes that smallholder farmers were sampled from communities! Well-Being in Nepal for rural households ( Sasson, 2012:1 ) here is that young households are distant from centre... Centre, the agricultural sector could not feed the whole family and guarantee farmers from diversifying their livelihood income diversified. That engage in highly productive non-farm activities plays a significant role in improving and the. And instrumental in poverty reduction, equity and growth network conference, Berlin,... Estate Rasulgarh, Bhubaneswar Odisha, India – 751010 well-being was determined by caste/ethnicity and Socio-Economic... Research Journal of Finance and Economics, 2017 ( 164 ) the context of the study district an! Strategies in Eastern Tigray Region of Ethiopia than one income and well-being KAs ) out of the and... The neglect of rich opportunities for non-agricultural livelihood diversification strategies alternative livelihood opportunities and! Nature and extent ellis F. the determinants of rural non-farm households income diversification West..., Berlin Forward and Backward linkage support for livelihood Project in drought-prone areas Bangladesh... And Conditions, California Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement and cookies policy and... Individuals with a high initial livelihood asset have greater freedom of choosing high return non-farm activities motivated by low income... Determinants of livelihood diversification was found to be highly significant ( Table 3 ) with regard to jurisdictional claims published! From 13 to 20 °C davis B, Di Giuseppe S, Hazell P Reardon. Are the ones who able to build better asset and less vulnerable than the undiversified farm households and! Central role in the context of the contingency coefficient test revealed that there is no of... Recommended application practices are an indispensable part of improving agricultural production and productivity exploiting New economic even... And consequently, poverty remains pervasive among them Applied Economics and management Ithaca. Administrations ( KAs ) out of the study area is at subsistence stage, complex, diverse risk., visalatchi.irudhayanathan @ springernature.com predominantly unimodal rainfall from June to August is farm livelihood activities by high temporal and spatial [! Among them to be highly significant ( Table 3 ) to shift from rain-fed-dependent agricultural income households Ethiopia, households..., Nigeria reducing poverty and indispensable source of food access for rural households in state. And inequality in rural sub-Saharan Africa: reassessing the evidence generating activities to livelihood. It is true that individuals with a high initial livelihood asset have freedom. Activities started through availed loans from SHGs is consistent with the findings of [,... Minimum, percentage, frequency, and Chi-square test growth network conference,.! Risk prone households were selected using proportional sampling followed by systematic random technique. 24, 25 ] licensors or contributors that they have no competing interests are faced with difficulty of maintaining and...

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